This plugin will allow you to publish content that has been generated with your favourite Office Suite MS, Libre or Open Office preserving all of its structure, design and format: How to use it NOTE: Save your document in.
If you are working with Excel you may equivalently save it in Open Document Format. Create or edit a Post or Page in your WordPress interface. Click the Insert Document button located over the text editor. A standard WordPress media window will open. You may upload a new document with the required contents or use a previously uploaded document. After choosing a file click on the Insert button. A [docxpresso] shortcode will be included within your text editor.
You may then add or not any additional content to your post but do not try to modify by hand the contents of the Docxpresso shortcode unless you really know what you are doing.
You may insert as many documents as you wish in a single Post or Page. Check this video tutorial where yo will find a detailed example of all the above: In case you want to make any of your tables sortable you also should: Go to youtube, Google forms or Google docs interfaces and copy the offered share link Always use, if available, the short URL format Insert it into your office document as a link By default the videos are fluid and the forms and docs take all available width space.
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It has the same syntax as the per-project ignore file. Two bzr commands are particularly useful here: The status command tells you what changes have been made to the working directory since the last revision:. The status command can optionally be given the name of some files or directories to check. The diff command shows the full text of changes to all files as a standard unified diff. With the -r option, the tree is compared to an earlier revision, or the differences between two versions are shown:.
To see the changes introduced by a single revision, you can use the -c option to diff. The --diff-options option causes bzr to run the external diff program, passing options.
Some projects prefer patches to show a prefix at the start of the path for old and new files. The --prefix option can be used to provide such a prefix. As a shortcut, bzr diff -p1 produces a form that works with the command patch -p1.
When the working tree state is satisfactory, it can be committed to the branch, creating a new revision holding a snapshot of that state. The commit command takes a message describing the changes in the revision. It also records your userid, the current time and timezone, and the inventory and contents of the tree.
The commit message is specified by the -m or --message option. You can enter a multi-line commit message; in most shells you can enter this just by leaving the quotes open at the end of the line. You can also use the -F option to take the message from a file. Some people like to make notes for a commit message while they work, then review the diff to make sure they did what they said they did. This file can also be useful when you pick up your work after a break.
If you use neither the -m nor the -F option then bzr will open an editor for you to enter a message. If you quit the editor without making any changes, the commit will be cancelled. The file that is opened in the editor contains a horizontal line. The part of the file below this line is included for information only, and will not form part of the commit message.
Below the separator is shown the list of files that are changed in the commit. You should write your message above the line, and then save the file and exit.
If you would like to see the diff that will be committed as you edit the message you can use the --show-diff option to commit. This will include the diff in the editor when it is opened, below the separator and the information about the files that will be committed. This means that you can read it as you write the message, but the diff itself wont be seen in the commit message when you have finished.
If you would like parts to be included in the message you can copy and paste them above the separator. If you give file or directory names on the commit command line then only the changes to those files will be committed.
By default bzr always commits all changes to the tree, even if run from a subdirectory. To commit from only the current directory down, use:.
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If more than one person works on the changes for a revision, for instance if you are pair-programming, then you can record this by specifying --author multiple times:. The bzr log command shows a list of previous revisions. As with bzr diffbzr log supports the -r argument:. As distributed VCS tools like Bazaar make merging much easier than it is in central VCS tools, the history of a branch may often contain lines of development splitting off the mainline and merging back in at a later time.
Technically, the relationship between the numerous revision nodes is known as a Directed Acyclic Graph or DAG for short. In many cases, you typically want to see the mainline first and drill down from there. The default behaviour of log is therefore to show the mainline and indicate which revisions have nested merged revisions. To explore the merged revisions for revision X, use the following command:.
Note that the -n option is used to indicate the number of levels to display where 0 means all. If that is too noisy, you can easily adjust the number to only view down so far. For example, if your project is structured with a top level gatekeeper merging changes from team gatekeepers, bzr log shows what the top level gatekeeper did while bzr log -n2 shows what the team gatekeepers did.
In the vast majority of cases though, -n0 is fine. The log command has several options that are useful for tuning the output. These include:. See the online help for the log command or the User Reference for more information on tuning the output.
It is often useful to filter the history so that it only applies to a given file. To do this, provide the filename to the log command like this:. To get the contents of a file at a given version, use the cat command like this:. History browsing is one area where GUI tools really make life easier. Bazaar has numerous plug-ins that provide this capability including QBzr and bzr-gtk.
See Using plugins for details on how to install these if they are not already installed. The export command is used to package a release, i. For example, this command will package the last committed version into a tar. The export command uses the suffix of the archive file to work out the type of archive to create as shown below.
If you wish to package a revision other than the last one, use the -r option. If you wish to tune the root directory inside the archive, use the --root option. See the online help or User Reference for further details on the options supported by export. To see the list of tags defined in a branch, use the tags command.
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If you accidentally put the wrong tree under version control, simply delete the. This will complain about the file being modified or unknown. If you want to keep the file, use the --keep option.
Alternatively, if you want to delete the file, use the --force option. On the other hand, the unchanged TODO file is deregistered and removed from disk without complaint in this example:. If you delete a file using your file manager, IDE or via an operating system command, the commit command will implicitly treat it as removed. One of the reasons for using a version control tool is that it lets you easily checkpoint good tree states while working.
If you decide that the changes you have made since the last commit ought to be thrown away, the command to use is revert like this:. As a precaution, it is good practice to use bzr status and bzr diff first to check that everything being thrown away really ought to be. If you want to undo changes to a particular file since the last commit but keep all the other changes in the tree, pass the filename as an argument to revert like this:.
Unlike revertuncommit leaves the content of your working tree exactly as it is. Another common reason for undoing a commit is because you forgot to add one or more files. Some users like to alias commit to commit --strict so that commits fail if unknown files are found in the tree.
While the merge command is not introduced until the next chapter, it is worth noting now that uncommit restores any pending merges. Running bzr status after uncommit will show these. For more information on mergesee Merging changes in the next chapter and the Bazaar User Reference. If your reason for doing this is that you really want to back out several changes, then be sure to remember that uncommit does not change your working tree: If you have, the revert would wipe them out as well.
In that case, you probably want to use Reverse cherrypicking instead to back out the bad fix. As an alternative to using an absolute revision number like 19you can specify one relative to the tip -1 using a negative number like this:.
If you have defined a tag prematurely, use the --force option of the tag command to redefine it. If you have defined a tag and no longer want it defined, use the --delete option of the tag command to remove it.
In many cases, two minds can be better than one. Perhaps you are both members of a larger team that have been assigned a task together as pair programmers. Either way, two people need to agree on a process, a set of guidelines and a toolset in order to work together effectively.
Imagine if you were not allowed to call someone on the phone directly and the only way to talk to them was by registering a conference call first? Companies and communities that only share code via a central VCS repository are living with a similar straitjacket to that every day.
There are times when central control makes a lot of sense and times when peer-to-peer rocks. Either way, Bazaar is designed to help. Over and above the tasks covered in the previous chapter, this chapter introduces two essential collaboration activities:. Before someone else can get a copy of your work, you need to agree on a transfer technology.
You may decide to make the top level directory of your branch a network share, an approach familiar to Windows users. Bazaar is very flexible in this regard with support for lots of protocols some of which are given below.
As indicated above, branches are identified using URLs with the prefix indicating the transfer technology. If no prefix is given, normal filenames are assumed. For a complete list of supported protocols, see the urlspec online help topic or the URL Identifiers section of the Bazaar User Reference. Before getting a copy of a branch, have a quick think about where to put it on your filesystem.
For maximum storage efficiency down the track, it is recommended that branches be created somewhere under a directory that has been set up as a shared repository. See Feature branches in n Organizing your workspace for a commonly used layout. To get a branch based on an existing branch, use the branch command. The syntax is:. If a directory is not given, one is created based on the last part of the URL. Here are some examples showing a drive qualified path M: Depending on the size of the branch being transferred and the speed and latency of the network between your computer and the source branch, this initial transfer might take some time.
Subsequent updates should be much faster as only the changes are transferred then. Keep in mind that Bazaar is transferring the complete history of the branch, not just the latest snapshot. Furthermore, these operations are quick as the history is stored locally.
Note that Bazaar uses smart compression technology to minimize the amount of disk space required to store version history. In many cases, the complete history of a project will take up less disk space than the working copy of the latest version. As explained in later chapters, Bazaar also has support for lightweight checkouts of a branch, i. Support for limited lookback into history - history horizons - is currently under development as well.
If you wish to see information about a branch including where it came from, use the info command. Once someone has their own branch of a project, they can make and commit changes in parallel to any development proceeding on the original branch. Pretty soon though, these independent lines of development will need to be combined again. This process is known as merging. To incorporate changes from another branch, use the merge command. Its syntax is:. If no URL is given, a default is used, initially the branch this branch originated from.
On the other hand, Mary might want to merge into her branch the work Bill has done in his. In this case, she needs to explicitly give the URL the first time, e. This sets the default merge branch if one is not already set. Use --no-remember to avoid setting it. To change the default after it is set, use the --remember option. A variety of algorithms exist for merging changes. Given an ancestor A and two branches B and C, the following table provides the rules used.
Note that some merges can only be completed with the assistance of a human. Details on how to resolve these are given in Resolving conflicts. Even if there are no conflicts, an explicit commit is still required. Unlike some other tools, this is considered a feature in Bazaar. A clean merge is not necessarily a good merge so making the commit a separate explicit step allows you to run your test suite first to verify all is good. If problems are found, you should correct them before committing the merge or throw the merge away using revert.
One of the most important features of Bazaar is distributed, high quality merge tracking. In other words, Bazaar remembers what has been merged already and uses that information to intelligently choose the best ancestor for a merge, minimizing the number and size of conflicts. Bazaar lets you safely merge as often as you like with other people. Unlike some other tools that force you to resolve each conflict during the merge process, Bazaar merges as much as it can and then reports the conflicts.
This can make conflict resolution easier because the contents of the whole post-merge tree are available to help you decide how things ought to be resolved. You may also wish to selectively run tests as you go to confirm each resolution or group or resolutions is good. As well as being reported by the merge command, the list of outstanding conflicts may be displayed at any time by using the conflicts command. It is also included as part of the output from the status command.
It also creates 3 files for each file with a conflict:. In many cases, you can resolve conflicts by simply manually editing each file in question, fixing the relevant areas and removing the conflict markers as you go.
After fixing all the files in conflict, and removing the markers, ask Bazaar to mark them as resolved using the resolve command like this:.
In some cases, you may wish to try a different merge algorithm on a given file. To do this, use the remerge command nominating the file like this:. This algorithm is particularly useful when a so-called criss-cross merge is detected, e.
See the online help for criss-cross and remerge for further details. If you have a GUI tool you like using to resolve conflicts, be sure to install the extmerge plugin.
Once installed, it can be used like this:. Rather than provide a list of files to resolve, you can give the --all option to implicitly specify all conflicted files. If not set, it will look for some popular merge tools such as kdiff3 or opendiffthe latter being a command line interface to the FileMerge utility in OS X.
When two or more people are working on files, it can be highly useful at times to see who created or last changed certain content. To do this, using the annotate command like this:. If you are a pessimist or an optimist, you might prefer to use one of built-in aliases for annotate: Either way, this displays each line of the file together with information such as:. The various GUI plugins for Bazaar provide graphical tools for viewing annotation information. For example, the bzr-gtk plugin provides a GUI tool for this that can be launched using the gannotate command:.
The GUI tools typically provide a much richer display of interesting information e. Rather than working in parallel and occasionally merging, it can be useful at times to work in lockstep, i. It is also applicable to a single developer who works on multiple machines, e. Many teams begin using Bazaar this way and experiment with alternative workflows later. Even if your team is planning to use a more distributed workflow, many of the tasks covered in this chapter may be useful to you, particularly how to publish branches.
While the centralized workflow can be used by socially nominating any branch on any computer as the central one, in practice most teams have a dedicated server for hosting central branches. Note that central shared branches typically only want to store history, not working copies of files, so their enclosing repository is usually creating using the no-trees option, e. You can think of this step as similar to setting up a new cvsroot or Subversion repository.
However, Bazaar gives you more flexibility in how branches may be organised in your repository. See Advanced shared repository layouts in the appendices for guidelines and examples. Note that committing inside a working tree created using the checkout command implicitly commits the content to the central location as well as locally. Had we used the branch command instead of checkout above, the content would have only been committed locally. Working trees that are tightly bound to a central location like this are called checkouts.
The rest of this chapter explains their numerous features in more detail. If you have a local branch and wish to make it a checkout, use the bind command like this:. This is necessary, for example, after creating a central branch using push as illustrated in the previous section. If you have a checkout and wish to make it a normal branch, use the unbind command like this:. When working in a team using a central branch, one person needs to provide some initial content as shown in the previous section.
After that, each person should use the checkout command to create their local checkout, i. Unlike Subversion and CVS, in Bazaar the checkout command creates a local full copy of history in addition to creating a working tree holding the latest content.
This means that operations such as diff and log are fast and can still be used when disconnected from the central location.
While Bazaar does its best to efficiently store version history, there are occasions when the history is simply not wanted. For example, if your team is managing the content of a web site using Bazaar with a central repository, then your release process might be as simple as updating a checkout of the content on the public web server. To get a history-less checkout in Bazaar, use the --lightweight option like this:.
The --lightweight option only applies to checkouts, not to all branches. If your code base is really large and disk space on your computer is limited, lightweight checkouts may be the right choice for you. Be sure to consider all your options though including shared repositoriesstacked branchesand reusing a checkout. One of the important aspects of working in lockstep with others is keeping your checkout up to date with the latest changes made to the central branch.
Note that your checkout must be up to date with the bound branch before running commit. Bazaar will ask you to run update if it detects that a revision has been added to the central location since you last updated. If the network connection to the bound branch is lost, the commit will fail. Some alternative ways of working around that are outlined next.
If you lose your network connection because you are travelling, the central server goes down, or you simply want to snapshot changes locally without publishing them centrally just yet, this workflow is for you. If you will be or want to be disconnected from the bound branch for a while, then remembering to add --local to every commit command can be annoying.
An alternative is to use the unbind command to make the checkout temporarily into a normal branch followed by the bind command at some later point in time when you want to keep in lockstep again. When you make commits locally independent of ongoing development on a central branch, then Bazaar treats these as two lines of development next time you update.
In this case, update does the following:. As always, you will need to run commit after this to send your work to the central branch. At times, it can be useful to have a single checkout as your sandbox for working on multiple branches. Some possible reasons for this include:. In many cases, working tree disk usage swamps the size of the. On other occasions, the location of your sandbox might be configured into numerous development and testing tools.
Once again, reusing a checkout across multiple branches can help. Note that simply binding to a new branch and running update merges in your local changes, both committed and uncommitted.
You need to decide whether to keep them or not by running either revert or commit. This is basically the same as removing the existing branch and running checkout again on the new location, except that any uncommitted changes in your tree are merged in.
As switch can potentially throw away committed changes in order to make a checkout an accurate cache of a different bound branch, it will fail by design if there are changes which have been committed locally but are not yet committed to the most recently bound branch.
To truly abandon these changes, use the --force option. With a lightweight checkout, there are no local commits and switch effectively changes which branch the working tree is associated with.
One possible setup is to use a lightweight checkout in combination with a local tree-less repository. This lets you switch what you are working on with ease. Note that trunk in this example will have a. You can grab or create as many branches as you need there and switch between them as required. The branches may be local only or they may be bound to remote ones by creating them with checkout or by using bind after creating them with branch.
Distributed VCS tools offer new ways of working together, ways that better reflect the modern world we live in and ways that enable higher quality outcomes.
In this workflow, each developer has their own branch or branches, plus a checkout of the main branch. A primary difference when using distributed workflows to develop is that your main local branch is not the place to make changes.
Instead, it is kept as a pristine copy of the central branch, i. Each new feature or fix is developed in its own branch. These branches are referred to as feature branches or task branches - the terms are used interchangeably. To create a task branch, use the branch command against your mirror branch. In particular, some changes take longer to cook than others so you can ask for reviews, apply feedback, ask for another review, etc. By completing work to sufficient quality in separate branches before merging into a central branch, the quality and stability of the central branch are maintained at higher level than they otherwise would be.
The policies for different distributed workflows vary here. The simple case where all developers have commit rights to the main trunk are shown below. One of the side effects of centralized workflows is that changes get frequently committed to a central location which is backed up as part of normal IT operations.
When developing on task branches, it is a good idea to publish your work to a central location but not necessarily a shared location that will be backed up. You may even wish to bind local task branches to remote ones established on a backup server just for this purpose. In this workflow, one developer the gatekeeper has commit rights to the main branch while other developers have read-only access.
All developers make their changes in task branches. When a developer wants their work merged, they ask the gatekeeper to review their change and merge it if acceptable. If a change fails review, further development proceeds in the relevant task branch until it is good to go. Note that a key aspect of this approach is the inversion of control that is implied: In this case, a task branch holding a bug fix will most likely be advertised to both gatekeepers.
One of the great things about this workflow is that it is hugely scalable. Large projects can be broken into teams and each team can have a local master branch managed by a gatekeeper. Someone can be appointed as the primary gatekeeper to merge changes from the team master branches into the primary master branch when team leaders request it. To obtain even higher quality, all developers can be required to submit changes to an automated gatekeeper that only merges and commits a change if it passes a regression test suite.How to Quote Clients for Website
One such gatekeeper is a software tool called PQM. For further information on PQM, see https: Another useful metaphor is a packet cake: To stretch the metaphor, the ingredients are all the metadata on the changes made to the branch; the recipe is instructions on how those changes ought to be merged, i.
Regardless of how you think of them, merge directives are neat. They are easy to create, suitable for mailing around as attachments and can be processed much like branches can on the receiving end. To create and optionally send a merge directive, use the send command.
See the online help for send and Configuration Settings in the User Reference for further details on how to configure this. Most projects like people to add some explanation to the mail along with the patch, explaining the reason for the patch, and why it is done the way it is.
This gives a reviewer some context before going into the line-by-line diff. Alternatively, if the --output or -o option is given, send will write the merge directive to a file, so you can mail it yourself, examine it, or save it for later use.